Symptoms include irritation of the nose, inflammatory changes in the respiratory tract, and decreased lung function. Other respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can also occur in miners. These diseases may occur alone or in addition to pneumoconiosis. Mining extracts useful materials from the earth.
Although mining provides many valuable minerals, it can also harm people and the environment. The inhalation of elemental Hg by children and other workers, who often work in kitchens away from the mine itself, is a problem (Basu et al. Women and girls carry the eggs of all their children, so any exposure to potentially harmful elements can affect the next generation and themselves (Sen et al. Diet can be an important route of exposure to harmful pollutants, especially if obtained near mines or lands affected by mining operations (Zhu et al.
Unfortunately, the situation affects both South African and migrant miners and has only slowly improved in the years since then (Kistnasamy et al. The following is a less regular review than a personal evaluation of the ways in which mining affects health. This mixture of rocks and minerals is usually extracted from the mine together and then processed and refined to isolate the desired mineral. Health services for miners and their communities, managed collaboratively by the government and mining companies, tend to produce mixed results in terms of community health (Stephens and Ahern 200), since they do not address the broader causes of ill health, such as the economy and the poverty trap.
However, between 10 and 21% of coal miners develop pneumoconiosis (black lung disease) among coal miners due to dust components (Blackley et al. Investigate the role of wind in the dispersion of heavy metals around mines in arid regions (a case study from the Kushk Pb-Zn mine, Bafgh, Iran). A coal mine produces a lot of dust that, if inhaled, can cause black lung disease among miners and others living in the surrounding region. Open pit mining causes deforestation and this has long-term effects even after the mine has been dismantled and the land has been filled with soil and replanted.
Toxic metals commonly found in mine waste, such as arsenic and mercury, are harmful to human health and wildlife if released into nearby streams. Throughout the world, mining contributes to erosion, sinkholes, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, significant use of water resources, reservoirs of rivers and ponds waters, wastewater disposal problems, acid drainage from mines and pollution of soil, groundwater and surface water, all of which can cause health problems in local populations (Rajaee et al. As a result, endemic species in the area will be greatly affected due to their sensitivity to environmental changes.